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Paper   IPM / Astronomy / 17233
School of Astronomy
  Title:   CHANG-ES XXVI. Insights into cosmic-ray transport from radio halos in edge-on galaxies
1.  M. Stein
2.  V. Heesen
3.  R.-J. Dettmar
4.  Y. Stein
5.  M. Bruggen
6.  R. Beck
7.  B. Adebahr
8.  T. Wiegert
9.  C. J. Vargas
10.  D. J. Bomans
11.  J. Li
12.  J. English
13.  K. T. Chyzy
14.  R. Paladino
15.  F. S. Tabatabaei
16.  A. Strong
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Astronomy & Astrophysics
  Vol.:  670
  Year:  2023
  Supported by:            ipm IPM
Context. Galactic winds play a key role in regulating the evolution of galaxies over cosmic time. In recent years, the role of cosmic rays (CRs) in the formation of the galactic wind has increasingly gained attention. Therefore, we use radio continuum data to analyse the CR transport in edge-on galaxies. Aims. With newly reduced radio continuum data of five edge-on galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3432, NGC 4013, NGC 4157, and NGC 4631), we plan to set new constraints on the morphology of radio halos and the physical properties of galactic winds driven by stellar feedback. By distinguishing between the central and outer regions of the galaxies, our study setup allows us to search for variations in the radio halo profile or CR transport along the galactic disk. Methods. Data from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey (LoTSS) Data Release 2 at 144 MHz (HBA) and reprocessed data from the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.5 GHz (L band) from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies �¢?? an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) enable us to increase the extent of the analysed radio continuum profile significantly (up to a factor of 2) compared to previous studies. We computed thermal emission maps using a mixture approach with H�?�± and near-infrared data, which were then subtracted to yield radio synchrotron emission maps. Then we compiled non-thermal spectral index maps and computed intensity profiles using a box integration approach. Lastly, we performed 1D CR transport modelling. Results. The non-thermal spectral index maps show evidence that the LoTSS maps are affected by thermal absorption in star-forming regions. The scale height analysis reveals that most of the galaxies are equally well fitted with a one-component instead of a two-component exponential profile. We find a bi-modality within our sample. While NGC 3432 and NGC 4013 have similar scale heights in the L band and HBA, the low-frequency scale heights of NGC 891, NGC 4157, and NGC 4631 exceed their high-frequency counterpart significantly. The 1D CR transport modelling shows agreement between the predicted magnetic field strength and the magnetic field strength estimates of equipartition measurements. Additionally, we find an increasing difference in wind velocities (with increasing height over the galactic disk) between the central and outer regions of the analysed galaxies.

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