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Paper   IPM / Cognitive Sciences / 17221
School of Cognitive Sciences
  Title:   Machine learning approaches and non-linear processing of extracted components in frontal region to predict rTMS treatment response in major depressive disorder
1.  E. Ebrahimadeh
2.  F. Fayaz
3.  L. Rajabion
4.  M. Seraji
5.  F. Aflaki
6.  A. Hammoud
7.  Z. Taghizadeh
8.  M. Asgarinejad
9.  H. Soltanian-zadeh
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
  Vol.:  17
  Year:  2023
  Supported by:  IPM
Predicting the therapeutic result of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment could save time and costs as ineffective treatment can be avoided. To this end, we presented a machine-learning-based strategy for classifying patients with major depression disorder (MDD) into responders (R) and nonresponders (NR) to rTMS treatment. Resting state EEG data were recorded using 32 electrodes from 88 MDD patients before treatment. Then, patients underwent 7 weeks of rTMS, and 46 of them responded to treatment. By applying Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on EEG, we identified the relevant brain sources as possible indicators of neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This was served through estimating the generators of activity in the sensor domain. Subsequently, we added physiological information and placed certain terms and conditions to offer a far more realistic estimation than the classic EEG. Ultimately, those components mapped in accordance with the region of the DLPFC in the sensor domain were chosen. Features extracted from the relevant ICs time series included permutation entropy (PE), fractal dimension (FD), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC), power spectral density, correlation dimension (CD), features based on bispectrum, frontal and prefrontal cordance, and a combination of them. The most relevant features were selected by a Genetic Algorithm (GA). For classifying two groups of R and NR, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) were applied to predict rTMS treatment response. To evaluate the performance of classifiers, a 10-fold cross-validation method was employed. A statistical test was used to assess the capability of features in differentiating R and NR for further research. EEG characteristics that can predict rTMS treatment response were discovered. The strongest discriminative indicators were EEG beta power, the sum of bispectrum diagonal elements in delta and beta bands, and CD. The Combined feature vector classified R and NR with a high performance of 94.31% accuracy, 92.85% specificity, 95.65% sensitivity, and 92.85% precision using SVM. This result indicates that our proposed method with power and nonlinear and bispectral features from relevant ICs time-series can predict the treatment outcome of rTMS for MDD patients only by one session pretreatment EEG recording. The obtained results show that the proposed method outperforms previous methods.

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