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Paper   IPM / Astronomy / 17004
School of Astronomy
  Title:   Emergent Universe from Energy-Momentum Squared Gravity
1.  M. Khodadi
2.  A. Allahyari
3.  S. Capozziello
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Physics of the Dark Universe
  Vol.:  36
  Year:  2022
  Supported by:            ipm IPM
In order to bypass the big bang singularity, we develop an emergent universe scenario within a covariant extension of General Relativity known as \emph{"Energy-Momentum Squared Gravity"}. The extra terms of the model emerge in the high energy regime. Considering dynamics in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker background, critical points, representing stable Einstein static states of the phase space, result as solutions. It then turns out that as the equation of state parameter Ï? gradually declines from a constant value as tâ??â??â??, eventually some of the static past eternal solutions find the chance to naturally enter into thermal history through a graceful exit mechanism. In this way, the successful realization of the emergent universe allows an expanding thermal history without the big bang singularity for the spatially flat universe free of cosmological constant.

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