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Paper   IPM / M / 16954
School of Mathematics
  Title:   Semi-regular sequences and other random systems of equations
  Author(s):  Mina Bigdeli (Joint with E. D. Negri, M. M. Dizdarevic, E. Gorla, R. Minko, and S. Tsakou)
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Association for Women in Mathematics Series
  Vol.:  24
  Year:  2021
  Pages:   75-114
  Supported by:  IPM
The security of multivariate cryptosystems and digital signature schemes relies on the hardness of solving a system of polynomial equations over a finite field. Polynomial system solving is also currently a bottleneck of index-calculus algorithms to solve the elliptic and hyperelliptic curve discrete logarithm problem. The complexity of solving a system of polynomial equations is closely related to the cost of computing Gröbner bases, since computing the solutions of a polynomial system can be reduced to finding a lexicographic Gröbner basis for the ideal generated by the equations. Several algorithms for computing such bases exist: We consider those based on repeated Gaussian elimination of Macaulay matrices.
In this paper, we analyze the case of random systems, where random systems means either semi-regular systems, or quadratic systems in n variables which contain a regular sequence of n polynomials. We provide explicit formulae for bounds on the solving degree of semi-regular systems with m>n equations in n variables, for equations of arbitrary degrees for m=n+1, and for any m for systems of quadratic or cubic polynomials. In the appendix, we provide a table of bounds for the solving degree of semi-regular systems of m=n+k quadratic equations in n variables for 1<k,n< 101 and online we provide the values of the bounds for 1< k,n< 51. For quadratic systems which contain a regular sequence of n polynomials, we argue that the Eisenbud-Green-Harris conjecture, if true, provides a sharp bound for their solving degree, which we compute explicitly.

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