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Paper   IPM / M / 16019
School of Mathematics
  Title:   On Shackel' s criticisms against the normativity of belief: a new evidence for truth and knowledge norms of belief (In Persian)
  Author(s):  Meghdad Ghari (Joint with A. Kalantari)
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Journal of Recognition
  Vol.:  13
  Year:  2021
  Pages:   153-180
  Supported by:  IPM
On the basis of the normativity of belief thesis in epistemology, belief is a normative mental state. There are various versions of the thesis in the literature, which two of the most well-known versions will be considered in this paper. The first version concerns the so-called �??truth norm�?� holds that �??one ought to believe that p iff p is true�?� (Shah 2003, 2009). On the basis of the other one, known as �??knowledge norm�?�, �??one ought to believe that p iff one knows that p�?� (Williamson 2000, Brown 2010). A complete consideration of the theses is typically extraneous to the purpose of this short paper. Our focus in this paper concerns Shackel�??s criticisms, according to which, there are self-referral sentences which render the norms into contradiction. In this paper we will consider and defuse the criticisms.

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