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Paper   IPM / P / 15025
School of Physics
  Title:   Emergence of string valence-bond-solid state in the frustrated J1-J2 transverse field Ising model on the square lattice
1.  M. Sadrzadeh
2.  R. Haghshenas
3.  S.S. Jahromi
4.  A. Langari
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Phys. Rev. B
  Vol.:  94
  Year:  2016
  Pages:   214419
  Supported by:  IPM
We investigate the ground-state nature of the transverse field Ising model on the J1-J2 square lattice at the highly frustrated point J2/J1=0.5. At zero field, the model has an exponentially large degenerate classical ground state, which can be affected by quantum fluctuations for nonzero field toward a unique quantum ground state. We consider two types of quantum fluctuations, harmonic ones by using linear spin-wave theory (LSWT) with single-spin-flip excitations above a long-range magnetically ordered background and anharmonic fluctuations, by employing a cluster-operator approach (COA) with multispin cluster-type fluctuations above a nonmagnetic cluster-ordered background. Our findings reveal that the harmonic fluctuations of LSWT fail to lift the extensive degeneracy as well as signaling a violation of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. However, the string-type anharmonic fluctuations of COA are able to lift the degeneracy toward a string valence-bond-solid (VBS) state, which is obtained from an effective theory consistent with the Hellmann-Feynman theorem as well. Our results are further confirmed by implementing numerical tree tensor network simulation. The emergent nonmagnetic string VBS phase is gapped and breaks lattice rotational symmetry with only twofold degeneracy, which bears a continuous quantum phase transition at �?/J1�??0.50 to the quantum paramagnet phase of high fields. The critical behavior is characterized by ν�??1.0 and γ�??0.33 exponents.

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