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Paper   IPM / Astronomy / 14592
School of Astronomy
  Title:   Foliation dependence of black hole apparent horizons in spherical symmetry
1.  Valerio. Faraoni
2.  George. F. R. Ellis
3.  Javad. T. Firouzjaee
4.  Alexis. Helou
5.  Ilia. Musco
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Phys. Rev. D
  Year:  2017
  Supported by:            ipm IPM
Numerical studies of gravitational collapse to black holes make use of apparent horizons, which are intrinsically foliation-dependent. We expose the problem and discuss possible solutions using the Hawking quasilocal mass. In spherical symmetry, we present a physically sensible approach to the problem by restricting to spherically symmetric spacetime slicings. In spherical symmetry the apparent horizons are gauge-independent in any spherically symmetric foliation but physical quantities associated with them, such as surface gravity and temperature, are not. The widely used comoving and Kodama foliations, which are of particular interest, are discussed in detail.

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