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Horizons of black holes or cosmologies are peculiar loci of spacetime where interesting physical effects takes place, some of which are probed by recent (EHT and LIGO) and future experiments (ET and LISA). We discuss that there are boundary degrees of freedom residing at the horizon. We describe their symmetries and their interactions with gravitational waves. This fits into a larger picture of boundary plus bulk degrees of freedom and their interactions in gauge theories. Existence and dynamics of the near horizon degrees of freedom could be crucial to address fundamental questions and apparent paradoxes in black holes physics.
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